# Return On Common Equity Formula

Finance / July 17, 2018 / Hana Cannon

For some businesses, like restaurants and some retailers, cash is really cash - currency and paper money. The business takes cash from customers and sometimes pays its bills in cash. Cash businesses have a special issue with keeping track of cash flow, especially since they may not track income unless there are invoices or other paperwork.

### Total Expenses Formula

#### Confidence Level Formula

##### Total Revenue Formula

###### Total Utility Formula

Cumulative interest is the sum of all interest payments made on a loan over a certain time period. On an amortizing loan, cumulative interest will increase at a decreasing rate, as each subsequent periodic payment on the loan is a higher percentage of the loanâ€™s principal and a lower percentage of its interest.

Cost of Equity is the rate of return a shareholder requires for investing equity into a business. The rate of return an investor requires is based on the level of risk associated with the investment, which is measured as the historical volatility of returns. A firm uses cost of equity to assess the relative attractiveness of investments, including both internal projects and external acquisition opportunities. Companies typically use a combination of equity and debt financing, with equity capital being more expensive.

Free cash flow is an important measurement since it shows how efficient a company is at generating cash. Investors use free cash flow to measure whether a company might have enough cash, after funding operations and capital expenditures, to pay investors through dividends and share buybacks.

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